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1-FR-4 vs. Rogers PCB Material

For some designs, dielectric PCB properties are critical

Whether it's high-speed designs, RF, microwave, or mobile applications-where power management is key, you're finding more situations that require dielectric PCB properties in your prototypes that standard FR-4 just can't deliver. We know that. That's why we've added Rogers 4000-series dielectric materials to our Quickturn product line. These new low-loss dielectric materials mean greater performance for your high-demand PCB prototypes.

Why Rogers Dielectric Material?

FR-4 material provides the base standard for PCB substrates, delivering a widely effective balance between cost, manufacturability, electrical properties, durability and performance.

But when electrical properties and performance are critical to your designs, Rogers 4350 delivers:

  • Lower Dielectric loss
  • Low signal loss
  • Low cost circuit fabrication
  • Suitable for quick-turn prototyping applications

Now ETAG Circuits can deliver your RF and mobile designs with the same industry-leading lead times, quality, and extreme customer support you've come to expect from all our services, only now with better low-loss dielectric PCB properties.

Glossary:

Dielectric Materials
A dielectric material is a substance that is a poor conductor of electricity, and used as an insulating layer in the PCB build up. Porcelain, mica, glass, plastics and some metal oxides are good dielectrics. The lower the dielectric loss, (the proportion of energy lost as heat) the more effective the dielectric material. If the voltage across a dielectric material becomes too great -- that is, if the electrostatic field becomes too intense -- the material will suddenly begin to conduct current. This phenomenon is called dielectric breakdown. Rogers 4350 is less likely to demonstrate a dielectric breakdown condition than FR-4.

Prepregs
Contraction of 'pre-impregnated composite fibres', and in the manufacture of PCBs, prepregs help influence the performance characteristics of the Printed Circuit.

You can get more information on all of Rogers' laminate products here, in the Rogers High Frequency Laminates Product Selector Guide

Rogers Material Quote

If your next project requires dielectric PCB properties, our new Rogers material is just what you need.

Pls contact us

2-Lead Free (RoHS Initiative)

Lead-Free PCB Assembly

In response to the continued support for the RoHS initiative, ETAG Circuits has several offerings to satisfy your lead-free PCB assembly needs.

Lead-Free PCB Solutions for the RoHS Initiative:

All of our lead-free PCB solutions are not only RoHS initiative compliant, but they offer the same excellent product quality and customer service you've come to expect from ETAG Circuits.

RoHS Initiative Compliant Order Process

Review the RoHS initiative compliant PCB ordering services available from ETAG:

Product & Service

PCBexpress Quickturn PCBs

Full Feature

Direct Sales

Lead-Free PCB Material

RoHS Compliant FR-4

RoHS Compliant FR-4

Many options

Surface Finishes

Immersion Silver

Immersion Silver, ENIG (RoHS)

Immersion Silver, ENIG (RoHS), Hard gold, Lead Free Solder, and OSP

RoHS FAQ

What material issues should I consider when designing for RoHS?
Typical RoHS assembly cycles run 30 C to 40 C degrees higher then traditional assembly processes. Because of this you will want to specify a material with a glass transition temperature (Tg) of 170 C degrees minimum. If you have concerns about "Tin Whiskers" you will want to specify a CAF (Conductive Anodic Filament) resistant material. For via and PTH reliability check the CTE (Z-axis expansion) rating for the material in choice. ETAG Engineering and PCB laminate suppliers can prove to be a valuable source of information when specifying materials for RoHS compliant boards.

How does ETAG insure the correct material was used to build the RoHS compliant part?
ETAG sends random samples each month to a third-party laboratory for testing to confirm the specified Tg of the material was supplied and used.

Are there any considerations that I should be aware of during the PCB layout phase of the design?
Most traditional PCB design practices can transfer smoothly to RoHS compliant boards. ETAG Engineering recommends to not "tent" or cover both sides of via holes to avoid "out gassing" during higher temperature assembly applications. To avoid "popcorning" on some flat mounted components such as BGA's and PBGA's, a more aggressive via rout fan-out pattern may be required. Additionally, some changes to solder paste stencil design may be incorporated to improve the pad wetting on RoHS compliant boards.

What are the advantages and concerns with different RoHS complaint finishes?
Below are some of the advantages and concerns with the more popular RoHS compliant finishes.

Pb Free Hot Air Solder Level (HASL) Coatings

  • Advantages: Pure metal alloy should work with most Pb-Free alloy choices. Pad wetting is faster and more uniform than other finishes. Another major advantage to Pb-free HASL finish is the use of high temperatures in the process act as an initial "Thermal Shock" test reveling issues such as delamination and out-gassing before the more costly assembly process.
  • Concerns: Non uniform deposits, delamination or warpage due to higher processing temperatures. Possibility of chemicals entrainment in PCB.

Immersion Metal Finishes – (e.g. Tin, Silver)

  • Advantages: Simple process, uniform height
  • Concerns: Coating thinness and durability, Non uniformity. Possible formation of non-solderable alloys, and oxidation.

Electroless NiAu

  • Advantages: Simple process, uniform finish, good shelf life, compatible with many alloys.
  • Concerns: Possibility of "Black Pad" failure. More expensive then other finishes. Electrical test pins may damage pads.

Organic Solderability Proctectants (OSP)

  • Advantages: Simple process, uniform finish, good solderability, lower cost.
  • Concerns: Limited shelf life, durability in multiple solder cycle assemblies.

What specification changes should I consider for RoHS compliant PCB's?
Besides a higher Tg material as discussed above, we recommend the following:

  • Specify desiccant be added to each package to control moisture.
  • Ensure the proper surface finish criteria is specified. For example: typical assembly processes require only 20-30 micro inches of immersion tin plating. The higher temperatures used in RoHS assembly process may cause the Cu to leach through that thickness of tin plating causing contamination that prevents proper pad wetting. We recommend a requirement of 50-70 micro inches of tin to prevent this. Consult with your EMS provider or ETAG Engineering to determine the best finish requirements for your assembly process.
  • Make sure to document the RoHS requirements on your fabrication drawing.

Are there any additional procedures we should implement after receiving boards?
It is best to leave the bare boards in the packaging supplied by the factory. Open only the packages required for incoming inspection to avoid moisture contamination that could lead to delamination. Below is ETAG Engineering recommendation for shelf life of various RoHS compliant finishes:

  • Lead free HASL: 9 Months
  • ENIG: 9 Months
  • Hard Gold: 9 Months
  • Immersion Silver: 4 Months
  • Immersion Tin: 4 Months

The boards may still be used after exceeding the shelf life, however ETAG Engineering recommends an additional bake of the bare PCB's to remove any excess moisture that may have penetrated the PCB's during storage or transportation. We recommend a bake cycle of 130-150 degrees C for 2-3 hours. We also recommend the additional bake cycle if the boards were stored in a non-humidity/temperature controlled environment.

What assembly advice can you provide to reduce the chance of delamination in RoHS compliant boards?
ETAG Engineering has found that slower temperature ramp times and peak temperatures in the reflow profiles can help to reduce delamination issues. We recommend the ramp up temperature should be no more then 2.5 degrees C per second, and the peak temperature to be no more the 250 degrees C.

What additional information can you give us regarding RoHS complaint boards?
We advise our customers to be aware of the following additional facts when dealing with RoHS compliant PCB's:

  • Higher Tg material is harder and more brittle then standard FR4 material. Care must be taken when handling or re-working the PCB's to avoid micro-cracks in the material which may allow moisture into the PCB causing de-lamination concerns later in the assembly process.
  • Assembled boards may come back with cosmetic differences including darker solder mask or material caused by the higher temperatures used during assembly. These cosmetic differences should not affect the performance of the assembly.

3- Thermal Clad & Metal Backed Printed Circuit Boards (PCB)

ETAG offers thermal clad and metal printed circuit boards with a full selection of high performance or low cost materials from leading suppliers around the world. Thermal clad PCB's are a dielectric metal base with a bonded copper circuit layer. This creates superior heat transfer to help cool components while eliminating problems associated with managing fragile ceramics.

With a wide range of electrical and thermally conductive interface pads, thermally conductive gap fillers, thermal phase change materials and thermally conductive electrically insulating materials, we can manufacture thermal clad & metal backed printed circuit boards that exceed all of our customers' expectations.

Thermal-Clad-Metal-Backed-Printed-Circuit-Boards-(PCB)

Thermal clad is a unique layered system comprised of the follow layers:

Circuit Layer: Printed circuit foil with thickness of 1oz to 5 oz.

Dielectric Layer: Many different options which offer electrical isolation with minimum thermal resistance. Also used to bond the circuit layer and base material together. Each specific dielectric has its own UL recognition.

Base Layer: Most often Aluminum, but can also be copper. The most commonly used thickness is 0.040" (1.0mm) although many thicknesses are available.

Formable Thermal Printed Circuit Board Solutions:

A unique proposition is Formable Thermal LED PCB Solutions. Unlike brittle ceramic or epoxy systems, the dielectric is formulated using a flexible thermally loaded material. This allows component placement using standard paste and reflow techniques, the board is formed to shape after assembly giving a one piece system removing the need for interconnecting wires.

Thermal Clad Printed Circuit Board – Applications

Power Conversion: Thermal clad offers a variety of thermal performances is compatible with mechanical fasteners and is highly reliable.

LED's: Using Thermal Clad PCB's assures the lowest possible operating temperatures and maximum brightness, color and life.

Motor Drives: Thermal Clad dielectric choices provide the electrical isolation needed to meet operating parameters and safety agency test requirements.

Solid State Relays: Thermal clad offers a very thermally efficient and mechanically robust substrate.

Automotive: The automotive industry uses Thermal clad boards as they need long term reliability under high operating temperatures coupled with their requirement of effective space utilization.

Improve the durability and performance of your product by using Thermal Clad PCB's. Simple designs and low thermal impedance of the dielectric out performs all other PCB insulators for power and high-operating temperature components.

Thermal Clad PCB Material

  • Bergquist
  • Thermagon
  • Arlon
  • Denka

Thermal Clad PCB Specifications

  • 1 & 2 Layer Dielectrics
  • Up to 5 oz finished Cu
  • Al and CU base material up to .250" thick
  • HASL, ENIG and Pb Free HASL finish available

Thermal Clad PCB Benifits

  • Lower Operating Temperatures
  • Improved Product Durability
  • Increased Power Density
  • Increased Thermal Efficiency
  • Reduced Number of Interconnects
  • Lower Junction Temperatures
  • Reduced PCB Size
  • Eliminates Older Hardware
  • Minimizes Labor Required for Assembly
  • Wide Variety of Form Factors
  • Minimize Thermal Impedance

4- Heavy Copper Printed Circuit Boards (PCB)

ETAG has been building heavy copper circuit boards with traces and copper planes of up to 6 ounces for over 20 years. Our expertise is in producing at a reasonable cost, heavy copper PCB's that are of proven designs. Our engineering team can work with you to review your design to make sure that they can be manufactured with the highest quality at the best overall cost.

Heavy-Copper-Printed-Circuit-Boards-(PCB)

Industries Served Using Heavy Copper Printed Circuit Boards

  • Welding Equipment
  • Solar Panel Manufacturers
  • Power Supplies
  • Automotive
  • Electrical Power Distribution
  • Power Converters

Heavy Copper Printed Circuit Board Capabilities

  • Maximum Number of Layers = 16
  • Laminate – FR-4 (All Tg Ranges), Teflon, Ceramic
  • Finished Thickness = .020" - .275"
  • Green, Blue, Red, Black, Clear & White Solder Masks & Legend Inks
  • Minimum Soldermask Clearance – 6 mils
  • Minimum Solderdam Width – 5.5 mils
  • Hot Air Solder Leveling (HASL)
  • Immersion Gold (ENIG) & Immersion Silver
  • Blind & Buried Vias
  • Minimum Drill Bit Hole Size = .012"
  • Minimum Holes Size - .008" +.005"/-.008"
  • Maximum Hole Aspect Ratio = 10:1
  • Maximum Copper Weight = 6 oz. (UL Approved)
  • Controlled Impedance +/- 10%
  • Minimum Silkscreen Line Width – 8 mils

 

Production Minimums

Measured in Inches

Hoz

1oz

2oz

3oz

4oz

5oz

6oz

Min. Conductor Width

0.004

0.005

0.006

0.007

0.008

0.009

0.10

Min. Conductor Spacing

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.012

0.014

0.017

0.020

Min. Pad to Pad Spacing

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.012

0.014

0.017

0.020

Min. Conductor-to-Pad Spacing

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.012

0.014

0.017

0.020

Min. PTH Annular Ring

0.006

0.006

0.008

0.009

0.011

0.013

0.014

Min. VIA Annular Ring

0.006

0.006

0.008

0.009

0.011

0.013

0.014

Min. Distance - Hole to Board Edge

0.010

0.010

0.010

0.010

0.010

0.010

0.010

5- ENEPIG Printed Circuit Boards

ENEPIG (Electroless Nickel Electroless Palladium Immersion Gold)

The perfect electronic product device should be as small and light as possible, while containing the maximum amount of electronic functionality and operating at the highest possible speed. To meet these needs, the electronic packaging industry has been driven to develop more and more ETAG packaging methods, both by increasing the density of integrated circuits on a single PCB and also by combining multiple functionalities into single, dense packages.

Increased package and interconnection density have driven the evolution of assembly methods from through-hole technology (THT) to surface mount technology (SMT) and have led an increased use of wire bonding to attach devices to PCB substrates. Decreased interconnect pitch and the use of chip scale packaging (CSP) have enabled the increases in device density, while multichip modules (MCM) / system in package (SiP) approaches have allowed integration of functionalities that would be difficult to produce on a single wafer substrate.

When the semiconductor industry has concentrated for many years on increasing the performance of devices by reduction in critical dimensions, until recently, there has been less consideration of the fact that devices in an electronic system must communicate with each other through the packages that contain them. Large I/O requirements and signal transmission quality have emerged as key considerations for the semiconductor packaging industry, as have the assembly process requirements and the final finish of PCB substrates used to achieve reliable interconnections both within IC packages and for the second level packaging of devices onto PCB substrates.

The below describes the key factors affecting interconnection reliability, especially focusing on the performance of finishes for gold wirebonding applications.

Surface Finish Options for Wirebonding

While electrolytic nickel gold provides excellent gold wirebonding performance, it suffers from three major deficiencies, each of which is a major barrier to its use in leading edge applications:

  • The process cost is high, driven by to the relatively high gold thickness required
  • At the higher gold thicknesses normally used, solder joint reliability may be reduced due to the formation of tin-gold intermetallics. Should the finish be combined with a second final finish, more suitable for soldering applications, additional costs from secondary imaging operations are also incurred
  • The electrical bussing required to make connections to the features during the plating process limit the feature densities that can be achieved

These limitations have provided an opening for electroless process options. These include electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG), electroless nickel electroless gold (ENEG) and electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG).

Of these three options, ENIG is not generally considered to have an acceptable process window for high reliability gold wire bonding (although it has been used for some lower end consumer applications) and ENEG suffers from many of the same process cost issues as electrolytic nickel gold, with additional challenges from operating more complex electroless gold processes.

While electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG) first emerged in the late 1990's, its market acceptance was delayed by the very volatile price of palladium metal around 2000. However, in more recent years, the market demand has shown strong growth as users have begun to appreciate the potential of ENEPIG to address many of the new packaging reliability needs, while also meeting lead free / ROHS requirements.

Apart from the advantage of packaging reliability, the cost of ENEPIG has now become a positive consideration. With recent increases in the price of gold price to levels above US$800 per troy oz, the production cost of electronic device that required thick gold electroplating becomes extremely difficult to control. Since the cost of palladium metal (US$300 per troy oz) has remained relatively low in comparison to gold, an opportunity for cost saving by replacement of gold with palladium is now available.

Comparison of Final Finishes

In the existing market, there are 4 primary lead-free final finishes for PCBs which are suitable for assembly of fine pitch QFP / BGA devices:

  • Immersion Tin
  • Immersion Silver
  • Organic Solder Preservatives (OSP)
  • Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold (ENIG)

The table below shows a comparison between these four final finishes and ENEPIG. None of the four primary final finish options is perfect for lead-free assembly, due to a variety of different concerns including multiple reflow cycle capability, shelf life before assembly and wire bond capability. In contrast, ENEPIG shows substantial advantages combining excellent shelf life, solder joint reliability, gold wire bondability and usage as a contact surface.

The protection of the electroless nickel interface with the formation of a thin electroless palladium layer, prior to immersion gold, eliminates the potential for excessive gold attack on the electroless nickel surface.

Comparison of Final Finish Performance

Characteristics

OSP

ENIG

ENEPIG

Immersion Silver

Immersion Tin

Shelf Life (controlled conditions)

< 12 Months

> 12 Months

> 12 Months

< 12 Months

3 – 6 Months

Handling / Contact with Soldering Surfaces

Must be avoided

Should be avoided

Should be avoided

Must be avoided

Must be avoided

SMT Land Surface Planarity

Flat

Flat

Flat

Flat

Flat

Multiple Soldering Cycles

Fair to good

Good

Good

Fair to good

Fair to good

No Clean Flux Usage

PTH/via fill concerns

No concerns

No concerns

No concerns

No concerns

Solder Joint Reliability

Good

Good process control required to avoid "black pad"

Good

Interfacial microvoid concerns

Good

Gold Wire bonding

No

No

Yes

No

No

Electrical Test Probing

Poor, unless solder applied during assembly

Good

Good

Good

Good

Corrosion Risk after Assembly

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Contact Surface Applications

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

Total Coating Thickness (micron)

> 0.15

u 0.08 – 0.13
Ni 3.0 – 6.0

Soldering:
Au 0.03 – 0.05
Pd 0.05 – 0.1
Ni 3.0 – 5.0
Wirebonding:
Au 0.07 – 0.15
Pd 0.1 – 0.15
Ni 3.0 – 5.0

0.05 – 0.5 typical

1.0 – 1.1

When we consider the final finish performance in a variety of different assembly methods, it can be seen that ENEPIG is suitable for a wide range of assembly requirements.

Advantages of ENEPIG

The key advantages of ENEPIG, combining both excellent solder joint and gold wire bonding reliability can be summarized in the following points:

  • "Black Nickel" free – no possibility of grain boundary corrosion of nickel surface by immersion gold
  • Palladium acts as an additional barrier layer to further reduce copper diffusion to surface, thus ensuring good solderability
  • Palladium completely dissolves into solder, without leaving an excessively high P% rich interface, exposing an oxide-free nickel surface allowing reliable formation of Ni/Sn intermetallic
  • Withstands multiple lead-free reflow soldering cycles
  • Demonstrates excellent gold wire bondability
  • Process costs substantially lower than electrolytic nickel gold or electroless nickel electroless gold

Rohm and Haas Electronic Materials LLC is a global supplier of a comprehensive range of final finishes, including pretreatment chemistries, electroless nickel, electroless palladium and immersion gold and tin products.

6- HDI – High Density Interconnect PCB

HDI boards, one of the fastest growing technologies in PCBs, are now available at ETAG. HDI Boards contain blind and/or buried vias and often contain microvias of .006 or less in diameter. They have a higher circuitry density than traditional circuit boards.

There are 6 different types of HDI boards, through vias from surface to surface, with buried vias and through vias, two or more HDI layer with through vias, passive substrate with no electrical connection, coreless construction using layer pairs and alternate constructions of coreless constructions using layer pairs.

Consumer Driven Technology

The via-in-pad process supports more technology on fewer layers, proving that bigger is not always better. Since the late 1980's we have seen video cameras using cartridges the size of a novel, shrink to fit in the palm of your hand. Mobile computing and working from home pushed technology further to make computers faster and lighter, allowing the consumer to work remotely from anywhere.

HDI Technology is the leading reason for these transformations. Products do more, weigh less and are physically smaller. Specialty equipment, mini-components and thinner materials have allowed for electronics to shrink in size while expanding technology, quality and speed.

Key HDI Benefits

As consumer demands change, so must technology. By using HDI technology, designers now have the option to place more components on both sides of the raw PCB. Multiple via processes, including via in pad and blind via technology, allow designers more PCB real estate to place components that are smaller even closer together. Decreased component size and pitch allow for more I/O in smaller geometries. This means faster transmission of signals and a significant reduction in signal loss and crossing delays.

Via in Pad Process

Inspiration from surface mount technologies from the late 1980's has pushed the limits with BGA's, COB and CSP into smaller square surface inches. The via in pad process allows for vias to be placed within the surface of the flat lands. The via is plated and filled with either conductive or non-conductive epoxy then capped and plated over, making it virtually invisible.

Sounds simple but there is an average of eight additional steps to complete this unique process. Specialty equipment and trained technicians follow the process closely to achieve the perfect hidden via.

Via Fill Types

There are many different types of via fill material: nonconductive epoxy, conductive epoxy, copper filled, silver filled and electrochemical plating. These all result in a via buried within a flat land that will completely solders as normal lands. Vias and microvias are drilled, blind or buried, filled then plated and hidden beneath SMT lands. Processing vias of this type requires special equipment and is time consuming. The multiple drill cycles and controlled depth drilling adds to process time.

Cost Effective HDI

While some consumer products shrink down in size, quality remains the most important factor for the consumer second to price. Using HDI technology during design, it is possible to reduce an 8 layer through-hole PCB to a 4 layer HDI microvia technology packed PCB. The wiring capabilities of a well-designed HDI 4 layer PCB can achieve the same or better functions as that of a standard 8 layer PCB.

Although the microvia process increases the cost of the HDI PCB, the proper design and reduction in layer count reduces cost in material square inches and layer count more significantly.

Building Non-Conventional HDI Boards

Successful manufacturing of HDI PCBs requires special equipment and processes such as laser drills, plugging, laser direct imaging and sequential lamination cycles. HDI boards have thinner lines, tighter spacing and tighter annular ring, and use thinner specialty materials. In order to successfully produce this type of board, it requires additional time and a significant investment in manufacturing processes and equipment.

Laser Drill Technology

Drilling the smallest of micro-vias allows for more technology on the board's surface. Using a beam of light 20 microns (1 Mil) in diameter, this high influence beam can cut through metal and glass creating the tiny via hole. New products exist such as uniform glass materials that are a low loss laminate and low dielectric constant. These materials have higher heat resistance for lead free assembly and allow for the smaller holes to be used.

Lamination & Materials For HDI Boards

ETAG multilayer technology allows for designers to sequentially add additional pairs of layers to form a multilayer PCB. The use of a laser drill to produce holes in the internal layers allows for plating, imaging and etching prior to pressing. This added process is known as sequential build up. SBU fabrication uses solid filled vias allowing for better thermal management, a stronger inter connect and increasing the board's reliability.

Resin coated copper was developed specifically to aide with poor hole quality, longer drill times and to allow for thinner PCBs. RCC has an ultra-low profile and ultra-thin copper foil that is anchored with minuscule nodules to the surface. This material is chemically treated and primed for the thinnest and finest line and spacing technology.

The application of dry resist to the laminate still uses heated roll method to apply the resist to core material. This older technology process, it is now recommended to preheat the material to a desired temperature prior to the lamination process for HDI printed circuit boards. The preheating of the material allows for better a steady application of the dry resist to the surface of the laminate, pulling less heat away from the hot rolls and allowing for consistent stable exit temperatures of the laminated product. Consistent entrance and exit temperatures lead to less air entrapment beneath the film; this is critical to the reproduction of fine lines and spacing.

LDI & Contact Imagery

Imaging finer lines than ever before and using semiconductor Class 100 Clean rooms to process these HDI parts is costly but necessary. Finer lines, spacing and annular ring requires much tighter controls. With use of finer lines, touchup rework or repair becomes an impossible task. Photo tool quality, laminate prep and imaging parameters are necessary for successful process. Using a clean room atmosphere decreases defects. Dry film resist is still the number one process for all technology boards.

Contact imaging is still widely used due to cost of laser direct imaging; however, LDI is a far better option for such fine lines and spacing. Currently most factories still use contact imaging in a SC100 room. As the demand expands, so does the need for laser drilling and laser direct imaging. All of ETAG's HDI production facilities use the latest in technology equipment to produce this ETAG PCB.

Products such as cameras, laptops, scanners and cell phones will continue to push technology to smaller and lighter requirements for the consumer's daily use. In 1992, the average cell phone weighed 220-250 grams and was strictly for making phone calls; we now call, text, surf the net, play our favorite songs or games and take pictures and videos on one tiny device weighing 151grams. Our changing culture will continue to drive HDI technology and ETAG will be here to continue to support our customer needs.

7-Wave Soldering Defects

Wave soldering is a large-scale soldering process by which electronic components are soldered to a printed circuit board (PCB) to form an electronic assembly. The name is derived from the use of waves of molten solder to attach metal components to the PCB. The process uses a tank to hold a quantity of molten solder; the components are inserted into or placed on the PCB and the loaded PCB is passed across a pumped wave or waterfall of solder. The solder wets the exposed metallic areas of the board (those not protected with solder mask, a protective coating that prevents the solder from bridging between connections), creating a reliable mechanical and electrical connection. The process is much faster and can create a higher quality product than manual soldering of components.

Wave soldering is used for both through-hole printed circuit assemblies, and surface mount. In the latter case, the components are glued by the placement equipment onto the printed circuit board surface before being run through the molten solder wave.

8- Alumnuim Base

Insulated Metal Substrate / Aluminium printed circuit boards

ETAG has been involved in the design, manufacture and assembly of aluminium backed printed circuit boards for many years, from prototyping to high volume production runs.

The aluminium pcb is ideally suited for the mounting of high power light emitting diodes (LEDs) easily dissipating the heat generated by 1W, 3W etc power devices.

ETAG can assist in the design of your aluminium PCB, maximising the benefits that an aluminium pcb can exhibit over conventional pcb material, reducing costs in the areas of pcb dimensions, reduction in the requirement of bulky heatsinks and pcb mounting hardware. Aluminium backed PCBs have many benefits over conventional PCBs:

  • Dissipation of heat without using additional heatsinks.
  • Mechanically rigid, increasing the physical strength of the assembly.
  • Reduces the effect of thermal stress on all components, increasing life and durability.
  • Improved thermal conduction leading to versatility in component and tracking layout enabling PCB dimensions to be reduced.
  • Reduces component operating temperatures, improving reliability.
  • Substrate aluminium can be drilled / machined and routed, aiding PCB mounting.

COBRITHERM® is an Insulated Metal Substrate (IMS), a base of thick aluminium clad with ED copper foil
COBRITHERM® is designed for effective thermal dissipation. With a proprietary formulated epoxy-ceramic bonding layer high thermal conductivity, dielectric strength and thermal endurance is guaranteed.
Mainly intended for SMD technologies, the laminate can resist all kinds of mass soldering processes at high temperatures. The laminate is supplied with a PETP protective film on the aluminium side to protect it against wet PCB processes.
Available material dimensions:
Copper: 35, 70, 105 and 210 micron
Aluminium: 1, 1.5, 2, 3 mm

9- PCB Plug Via Process

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Design by: Electronic Trade of Arsh Gostar Co. (ETAG) Multimedia Studio :: amir abdi :: 2016